It was particularly the punishment for slaves found guilty of any serious crime.
Hence in two places (Pro Cluent., 66; I Philipp., ii), Cicero calls it simply "servile supplicium" the punishment of slaves more explicitly (In Verr., 66), "servitutis extremum summumque supplicium" the final and most terrible punishment of slaves.
The corpse might also be buried if the sentence permitted (Valer.
Max., vi, 2; Senec., "Controv.", VIII, iv; Cic., "Tusc.", I, 43; Catull., cvi, 1; Horace, "Epod.", I, 16-48; Prudent., "Peristephanon", I, 65; Petron., lxi sqq.).
The swastika sign is seen on Hittite monuments, e.g. In the Island of Cyprus it is found on earthenware vessels. 2, II, 178-179), and in the treasury of Orchomenus. From the earliest times also it appears among the hieroglyphic signs symbolic of life or of the living, and was transliterated into Greek as ).
on a cylinder ("The monuments of the Hittites" in "Transactions of the Soc. It originally represents, as again at Athens and Mycenæ, a flying bird. II, 302 sqq.; "Hercule assyrien", 377-380; Minervini in "Bull. It seems to have been unknown in Assyria, in Phnicia, and in Egypt. There are many such emblems on the urns found at Capanna di Corneto, Bolsena, and Vetulonia; also in a Samnite tomb at Capua, where it appears in the centre of the tunic of the person there depicted (Minervini, Bull. But the meaning of this sign is very obscure (Da Morgan, Recherches sur les origines de l'Egypte, 1896-98); perhaps it was originally, like the swastika, an astronomical sign.
It has a solemn meaning among both Brahmins and Buddhists, though the elder Burnouf ("Le lotus de la bonne loi, traduit du sanscrit", p. It seems to have represented the apparatus used at one time by the fathers of the human race in kindling fire; and for this reason it was the symbol of living flame, of sacred fire, whose mother is Maia, the personification of productive power (Burnouf, La science des religions). 625), taking the Sanskrit word literally, divided it into the particles seems to have been used in a causative sense (Burnouf, Dictionnaire sanscrit-français, 1866). We shall explain below the value and symbolical meaning of this when found on Christian monuments.
The swastika is a sacred sign in India, and is very ancient and widespread throughout the East. of Great Britain, VI, 454) believes it more common among the latter than among the former. In the last monument the swastika is imperfect in form, and resembles a Phnician letter.
These pre-Christian figures of the cross have misled many writers to see in them types and symbols of the manner in which Jesus Christ was to expiate our sins.
Such inferences are unwarranted, being contrary to the just rules of criticism and to the exact interpretation of ancient monuments. The stake and the gibbet were more common, the criminal being suspended on them or bound to them, but not nailed.
The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity.
It goes back to a very remote period of human civilization.