Wayang is a strong tradition of puppetry native of Indonesia, especially in Java & Bali.
In Java, wayang kulit, an elaborate form of shadow puppetry is very popular.
The simplest puppets are finger puppets, which are tiny puppets that fit onto a single finger, and sock puppets, which are formed from a sock and operated by inserting one's hand inside the sock, with the opening and closing of the hand simulating the movement of the puppet's "mouth".The language used in Tholpavakoothu performances is a dialect of Tamil along with Sanskrit and Malayalam words.Performances are traditionally accompanied by musical instruments from Kerala such as the chenda, madhalam or ezhupara (a cylindrical drum made out of jackfruit wood and covered with calf-skin on both ends), ilathalam (cymbals), shankha (conch), chengila (gong), kurumkuzhal (a double reed wind instrument) and cherukuzhal.This led to puppet societies becoming secretive and exclusive. In the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata there are references to puppets. Padhye, introduced this form of puppetry to India in the 1920s and his son, Ramdas Padhye, subsequently popularised ventriloquism and puppetry.The Rajasthani Puppet from India is notable and there are many Indian ventriloquists and puppeteers. Tholpavakoothu (or Tolpava Koothu) is a tradition of shadow puppetry that is unique to Kerala, India.