"[The] general principle, that men are very largely actuated by motives which they conceal from themselves, is as true of mass as of individual psychology.It is evident that the successful propagandist must understand the true motives and not be content to accept the reasons which men give for what they do." In other words, selling products by appealing to the rational minds of customers (the main method used prior to Bernays) was much less effective than selling products based on the un-conscious desires that Bernays felt were the true motivators of human action.In the 1920s, under Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover, the American government promoted advertising.Hoover himself delivered an address to the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World in 1925 called 'Advertising Is a Vital Force in Our National Life." An important tool for influencing immigrant workers was the American Association of Foreign Language Newspapers (AAFLN).The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC.In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry (11th to 7th centuries BC) of bamboo flutes played to sell confectionery.At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. In order to profit from this higher rate of production, industry needed to recruit workers as consumers of factory products.It did so through the invention of mass marketing designed to influence the population's economic behavior on a larger scale.
These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books and newspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines, which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. Barratt introduced many of the crucial ideas that lie behind successful advertising and these were widely circulated in his day.
On the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct-response advertising.
Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies.
In the United States, the success of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.
In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertising agency in Philadelphia.